Texturing

The nice thing about an "architectural" scene like this is that there really isn't a lot that would need to be unwrapped. The majority of the textures can just use the regular UVW Maps. I won't cover how I textured every single object since it's more or less the same process for all of them, but I will point out the highlights of some of the more elaborate textures.

I'll start off with the drywall since it's one of the more noticeable pieces of the scene. To save myself some time I painted a texture for the entire wall, rather than each panel separately. To do this, I use a little technique I developed. The first step is to isolate (Tools > Isolate Selection) the pieces in one of the isometric viewports (Front, Left, Top, etc) so that you're looking at the full wall. Next, hit "Print Screen" on your keyboard to take a shot of your screen, then paste it into any paint program (Photoshop, Paintshop Pro, etc). In Photoshop, press Ctrl+N, then Ctrl+V to paste your screen into a new document.

Isolated Selection:


The next step is to crop the image so that the wireframe of the objects is touching the edges of the image. This next step I'm about to describe isn't necessary but it makes things easier. The whole point of this wireframe you pasted is to use it as a guide for painting your texture. What I like to do us set the layer's blending mode to "Multiply". Then I invert the colours and bump up the contrast. This gives me an image with black wires and a white background. Setting it to Multiply essentially removes all the white and just leaves the black wires overtop the rest of the texture. Now I'm ready to start painting.

What I like to do if possible is use photos as a base for my textures. A clean version of the desired material is best. So in this case I took a picture of some drywall in my basement. It's very plain, grey with a couple dents and scratches, but it's just a base. From there we add more layers and begin adding some interest to it. Normally I paint in grime and dirt, just using the airbrush tool, and the Guassian Blur filter.

Drywall Texture Round 1:


For the water stains on a new layer I drew a thin black line in the shape I wanted, then copied the layer 3 times. One layer I Gaussian Blurred until the line was almost gone. The next I blurred about half as much, and then the remaining thin line was blurred just slightly. Water stains tend to be darkest on the outer edges and fade as they go towards the source of the leak.

Water Stain Reference:


The blotches in the drywall started off as areas painted in with the airbrush. After that I used the Sumi-e filter (Filters > Brush Strokes > Sumi-e) then Gaussian blurred them slightly. We've got a good start to the drywall texture, but it needs something more. What I do at this point is composite in photos with specific elements, cracks, holes, rips, etc. What I do is paste the photo on as a new layer, then rotate and scale it if necessary. Once in position, I add a layer mask and begin painting out all the parts of the photo that I don't need. More often than not, it's also necessary to adjust the brightness/contrast, and colour correct the new image so that it blends seamlessly. Save this file as a PSD with all the layers intact. This will let you go back and edit the texture if necessary.

The finished drywall texture:


To apply the texture is now quite simple. With the same pieces selected, add a UVW Map modifier and set the type to Planar. It should snap to the outer edges of your objects. If not just click the "Fit" button. Now open up the material editor and put your PSD into the Diffuse Channel of a new material. Apply that material to your objects. Give it a quick render and see how everything looks. If it doesn't line up properly you may need to adjust your UVW Map placement. If you do, go back to the material editor and click the "Show Map in Viewport" button (Blue and white cube). Most of the textures in this scene have been created the same way. (Note, this method only works well for flat objects)
  • Isolate selection
  • Take a screenshot from an Isometric View
  • Paste screenshot in a paint program
  • Invert image, increase contrast, and set blending mode to Multiply
  • Use clean photo as base for painting
  • Composite in other photo elements if necessary.
The concrete floor was created using the exact same method. The lumber was a little tricky, because I didn't have access to a camera when I needed it, so I had to go with what I could find online, which wasn't much. I did find a couple textures and using the same method came up with a couple useable maps. Although, not nearly as many as I wanted, considering the number of boards in the scene. In order to make this work I had to be clever with my UVW Mapping on the boards. Each one has a different number for length, width, height, tiling, and position. This did a pretty good job of randomizing the placement of the textures although it can only go so far before it starts repeating and looking similar.

The Finished Lumber:


The beer case and bottles I'm rather proud of. For the case I decided to make the extra effort and scan in the sides from an actual case. I only needed 3 of the 5 sides (top included). Each side is a separate image. To create the material I first made a Multi Sub Object material with 4 sub materials (3 sides and then the inside). Each submaterial had an image for the side it represents (Front/Back, Sides, Top, Interior) The corresponding polygons were all given their own Material ID in the editable polygon properties.
  • Front Faces - Mat. ID 1
  • Side Faces - Mat. ID 2
  • Top Flap Faces - Mat. ID 3
  • All Interior Faces - Mat. ID 4
Add a UVW Map set to "Box" and click the "Fit" button. Now if you apply this material and everything works properly you should have 4 separate materials showing up on the proper faces. You may have to rotate the materials so that they line up properly. This should be done in the material settings itself and not the UVW Map.

The Finished Beer Case:


The beer bottles used a similar method; only instead the UVW Map was set to Cylindrical. For the glass material I used Brazil Glass. However, a similar glass material can be created using the Raytrace Material. Set the Opacity down to about 10, and put a Falloff map in the reflection slot, then giving it a brown diffuse colour.

The Finished Beer Bottles:


The insulation turned out to be easier to texture than I thought. It simply has a Noise map on it set to fractal. Since it's half hidden in the background it's not necessary to put in a whole lot of detail.

The Finished Insulation:


I took some shortcuts with texturing the couch. Rather than unwrapping it, I simply used a UVW Map set to "Box". By using a low contrast map the seams in the texture become a lot harder to see, and at the distance it's being viewed at become all but invisible. The texture itself is just a repeating fabric pattern tiled across the surface.

The Finished Couch:


This wraps up the texturing part of the tutorial. On the next page I will cover lighting, rendering and post-processing.

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